New light on the Sobieski Stuarts
The biography and background of Thomas Allen the father of John Carter Allen (1795-1872) alias John Sobieski Stuart and Charles Manning Allen (c.1801-1880) alias Charles Edward Stuart, Count of Albany, has received considerable attention from historians over a long period. In 1897 Henry Jenner wrote that the brothers' story, bedevilled by lies and invention, was 'a very slippery one' that had 'eluded the grasp of everyone  and a hundred years later Professor Hugh Trevor-Roper wrote that about Thomas Allen, 'nothing seems discoverable' . The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography in 2004 followed Trevor-Roper's outline, but both had overlooked material in articles by Leo Berry in Notes & Queries in 1952  which have led to the present discoveries.
The basic story if that the two brothers began in the 1830s to say that they were the legitimate grandchildren of the Young Pretender, claiming that the secret of their royal descent had been revealed to them about 1811, that they then fought for Napoleon at Dresden, Leipzig and Waterloo and learned Gaelic in London. John travelled in Argyll and then joined Charles in Edinburgh, they living together in the Finhorn valley from 1826 and moving to Eilean Aigas on the River Beauly in 1838. From there they published a now discredited work on clan tartans in 1842  and a romanticised outline of their ancestral claims in 1847 . Both books were savaged by Professor George Skene of Glasgow University in 1847  and the brothers went overseas, returning to England only in 1868.
The brothers claimed that their father, Thomas Allen, had been born to the Young Pretender in 1773 but spirited away from Italy and adopted by their grandfather Admiral John Carter Allen (1725-1800) who, however, as the Dictionary of National Biography pointed out, was on half-pay from 1771 to 1775 and not in command of any ship at the time. Thomas Allen himself, however, was proud of a Hay descent and seems not to have made these claims to Stuart ancestry . He had married at Godalming in 1792 Catherine Matilda Manning, a daughter of Rev. Owen Manning the historian of Surrey. She had been baptised at Godalming in 1765 and was thus some years older than Thomas. Thomas retired from the Navy in 1798 and his subsequent history was far from clear though his son Charles Manning Allen wrote in 1877 that his father (whom he called James) died in 1839, a date adopted by Trevor-Roper and the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography in rejection of the year 1852 which had been accepted by the old Dictionary of National Biography.
An account of the claims published by Hugh Beveridge in 1909  says that the two brothers 'were extraordinarily like' the Young Pretender (a statement strongly disputed by Leo Berry)  but noted that they also resembled their rejected grandfather Admiral John Carter Allen. Beveridge unwisely concluded that either the brothers were the Prince's grandchildren or that the Admiral himself had an illegitimate descent from the Stuarts .
Thomas Allen (1767-1852)
Although generally referred to as 'Captain' Thomas Allen and given that description by his family, Berry could find no evidence that he was promoted beyond Second Lieutenant . In 1952 Berry wrote that in retirement Thomas Allen had married secondly about 1812 a much younger woman, Ann Salmon, and had several children by her. Berry had been in touch with a descendant of that 'second marriage' and seen a few family papers that had come down in the family. He and Beveridge before him had no doubt that Thomas's wife Catherine Matilda had died about 1811. Ann's children, they said, were 'looked down on' by the Sobieski Stuarts as 'of much lower rank in life' .
However, the statements by Trevor-Roper that Thomas Allen then 'lived mainly abroad, especially in Italy' and by Berry that Thomas, following speculation and other financial problems, was from 1816 to 1829 based at Boulogne, 'a safe refuge for English debtors' , cannot be confirmed, but coupled with Beveridge's statement that there had been 'a general break-up of the home' about 1818 and that Thomas's whereabouts were unknown until 1822 , have led to a long series of entries in the Middlesex Deeds Registry (MDR) and the London Gazette.
From these we learn that under his marriage settlement with Catherine Matilda Manning, Thomas and their children (the two sons and a daughter Matilda) had a life interest and income from properties in Mare Street and Well Street, Hackney. Indeed Berry had already seen in the Allen family papers that in February 1817 Thomas Allen had appealed to the former Lord Chancellor, Lord Erskine, for help with the possible sale of some trust property but Erskine had replied that he could 'see no immediate remedy for the case you mention' .
A last minute attempt to make some arrangement for the future sale of the property and the income meanwhile was made on 17 January 1818  but that same day the unfortunate outcome is revealed by the Middlesex Deeds Registry which records a judgment in the Court of Kings Bench against Thomas and his son John in a plea of debt by James Barstow for £300 and damages . Thomas was consequently imprisoned for debt in the Fleet Prison from January 1818 until 20 December 1819. An Order of the Court for Relief of Insolvent Debtors that his petition for release be heard appeared in the London Gazette for 30 October 1819 when he was described as 'Thomas Allen (alias Thomas Hay Allen, alias Thomas Gatehouse Hay Allen, committed in the name Thomas Hay Allen) formerly of Oystermouth, near Swansea, Glamorgan; Withergate Hill near Nettlebed, Oxon; Frimley, Surrey; Gesling near Hastings, Sussex; Thayer Street, Manchester Square, Middlesex, and late of Greenwich Street, Kent' . His petition was heard at the Guildhall, Westminster, on 22 November 1819  and he was discharged on 20 December 1819 .
Thomas had moved from Greenwich to Lambeth by February 1822  but continued to live in fear of his creditors. Proposals for a final settlement with his bankruptcy assignees could not be agreed and he, his wife and children appear in a further series of transactions and mortgages relating to the trust properties, some of which were publicly auctioned on 8 May 1840. . A notice in the London Gazette for 1 October 1841 said that Thomas's creditors were to meet his assignees on 25 October 1841, proposing the purchase of the dividends, interest and produce of the £2,000 to which he was entitled for life at the time of his discharge as a debtor, in case he survived his wife, 'which event has lately happened', or to sell the same by auction in manner and place approved.  A final indenture of 4 July 1843 records the purchase by Thomas's son Charles Manning Allen of the family's life interest from the bankruptcy assignees . It is clear from the entries not only that Thomas did not die in 1837 but also that his wife Catherine Matilda did not die about 1811 but had survived until 1841.
Berry said that in 1839 Thomas was in hiding as 'Mr Salmon' at 10 Portland Place North, Clapham Road, Lambeth , and looking at the inhabitants of that street in the 1841 census I was amused to see him as 'Thomas MacGaradh', aged 70, independent, claiming to be born in Scotland. He had with him Anne MacGaradh, aged 48 (i.e. his 'second wife'), Eli Bar MacGaradh, aged 12 (i.e. their son Gilbert Hay Allen, born in 1829) and Napoleon de la Fleurier, aged 17 (his daughter's son Napoleon de la Fleuriere). The word 'MacGaradh' was supposed to be a war-cry of the Hay family and was the subject of a poem 'The Gathering of the Hays', parts of which Thomas's eldest son, then calling himself John Hay Allan, claimed to be ancient and had inserted in his book The bridal of Caolchairn and other poems (1822) to show a connection with the Hays of Errol. It contains the lines, "Come in MacGaradh! Come arm'd for the fray! Wide is the war-cry and dark is the day" . George Skene thought the poem a forgery  and George Fraser Black wrote that the word 'MacGaradh', which the brothers said was the Gaelic form of the surname Hay, was entirely their invention .
Berry says that from 1843 Thomas was confined to his room at 22 Henry Street, Pentonville, and he was there, apparently using Ann's surname, as 'John Salmon', aged 70, independent, with his 'wife' Ann, aged 60, in 1851 . He died at that address on 14 February 1852, aged 84, his death being registered as Thomas Hay Allen. It is said in the 1892 edition of one of his sons' books that he was buried at Old St Pancras  and it has been stated that he was buried at St James Clerkenwell , but he was actually buried, as Thomas Hay Allen, at St Giles in the Fields, on 23 February 1852 .
Catherine Matilda Manning (1765-1841)
Thomas's wife Catherine Matilda had not been mentioned in the wills of her father or mother but in 1818 she was a witness at the marriage of her daughter Matilda in Greenwich and in 1822 she and her husband, then of 23 Lower Charlotte Street, St George the Martyr, consented to and were witnesses at the marriage of their son Charles . She was named in the will of her unmarried sister Matilda Manning in 1827 and asked for an indenture of 1817 to be registered on 4 March 1834 .
I had assumed from the published accounts that at some stage Thomas had left the marital home and gone to live with Ann. However, the 1817 indenture speaks of John Carter Allen eldest son of Thomas Allen by Katherine Matilda and 'now residing with them' which, like their son Charles's marriage entry in 1822, indicates that the couple continued to live together.
The record of Katherine Matilda's death in 1841 proved elusive but was found registered by her husband, he calling himself Thomas MacGaradh and, as though unrelated, describing her in her maiden name of Manning and as a 'widow'. She died on 14 February 1841 at 11 Portland Place North, aged 77. The census taken in June shows that Ann then quickly moved into the house.
Charles Manning Allen (1802-1880) [amended 19 February 2020]
It should perhaps be mentioned that Thomas's second legitimate son, Charles Manning Allen, who is variously stated to have been born in April 1797 or on 4 June 1799, was not born until 1802, and was still under age and needing the consent of his parents for his marriage at St George, Hanover Square, on 9 October 1822. A notice of the marriage in The Examiner of 20 October 1822 describes him as 'Charles Stuart Hay Allen' and he used that name when at a Levee by the King in London on 21 April 1823 . That the brothers went to see King George IV in Edinburgh in August 1822 cannot be confirmed. His brother John wrote that Charles had been born on 4 July  and [as I wrote in 2016] if that was correct and he was not born until 4 July 1802 he was indeed young to have been fighting at Dresden in August 1813. His baptism has since been found on 3 August 1802 at Rotherfield Greys, Oxfordshire, where the entry gives his date of birth as 4 July and he is entered as 'Charles Manning, son of Thomas & Katharine Matilda Allen'. His elder brother John, we know from Berry's work (but not noted in ODNB), was born at Oystermouth, Glamorgan, 4 August 1795, and baptised there, 5 October 1795 .
Matilda Allen (born 1799)
Thomas Allen's daughter Matilda had been born at Oystermouth, Glamorgan, on 18 October 1799 and baptised there on 12 January 1800 , though in 1851 she said that she was aged 45 and born in Holland . Berry said that she had been married twice: firstly to Dr Bosanquet who was also known as the Comte de Fleure, by whom she had a son who died unmarried in London and other issue, and secondly in the 1840s to Count Ferdinand de Lancastro, by whom she had another son, 'Charles Ferdinand Montesinore de Lancastro, Count de Lancastro et d'Albanie', born in 1844 .
Research has shown that Matilda indeed married at St Alphege, Greenwich, on 8 April 1818, one Henry Timothie Boisquet de la Fleuriere, of Nantes, France, formerly a Captain in Napoleon's Light Horse and previously in the Hussars, who is described in The Times as 'second son of the late Marquis de la Fleuriere'. One may assume that Napoleon de la Fleuriere, who said that he was born at Lambeth about 1823-4 and died an 'author' in 1881, was their son . Berry had seen a letter signed M.B. from Matilda to her father written from abroad which told 'a pathetic and harrowing story of the destitution and even starvation to which she and her children were then reduced' . Berry does not give the date of this letter but says that most of those he had seen related to the years 1812-26 and she perhaps went to France on marriage. None of her children were baptised at Greenwich and Henry Timothie's death has not been found. [For additional information see Note 42B.]
However, Matilda surprisingly re-appears in the above-mentioned 1843 indenture together with her husband as 'Alexander McCaskery and Matilda his wife formerly Matilda Allen spinster'. This Alexander McCaskery, who was presumably her second husband though no marriage entry has been found [see, however, additional footnote 42A], was a police sergeant in Fulham . In 1861 he described himself as married but he was then lodging alone in Fulham . He died in 1870, aged 70 . I have not found where and when his wife Matilda died. The couple had at least three children: Alexander (1835-1848) who died young, Gabriel (1839-1920) a schoolmaster in the army who lived latterly at Battersea in 'a state of semi starvation' , and Oscar (1841-1915) a soldier who by 1881 was a patient in a Lunatic Asylum at Norwood . The first child was baptised at St Luke, Chelsea, the other two at St John, Walham Green, Fulham. Neither married.
This McCaskery family is not mentioned in the stories emanating from the Sobieski Stuarts. Instead Matilda, as mentioned, is said to have married secondly an unidentified Count Ferdinand de Lancastro and to have had issue an only son, also Charles Ferdinand, who said in 1871 that he was born in Brunswick in 1844  and is said to have had various military adventures before going to Austria in 1873 . This young man, who was in London with his Sobieski Stuart uncles in 1871, did not go abroad in 1873 but died as 'Charles Ferdinand Stuart' in London that year, aged 29 . He may, of course, have been a child of Matilda and Alexander, born overseas, but if so he was not with his parents as a child in 1851 .
Ann Salmon's children
Leo Berry had noted Thomas Allen's use of the surname Salmon in 1839 and Thomas's entry in that surname in the 1851 census returns and he had concluded that Thomas had taken Ann's surname, the couple having with them as a servant in 1851, a niece, Emily Salmon, aged 14, born in Somers Town, St Pancras . According to Berry this girl was the daughter of Richard Salmon of Great James Street, Marylebone, but he provides no evidence for that statement .
Thomas and Ann were said to have had five children born at Boulogne between '181-' and 1829 and it is possible that Thomas had gone to France in the early days of his liaison with Ann and perhaps that she was at Boulogne whilst he was in prison. Berry had in 1940 been in touch with a great-granddaughter of Thomas and Ann who said that the youngest of the children, Gilbert Hay Allen, was born on 14 October 1829, but Berry had few details of the other children, giving them all the surname 'Hay Allen' and saying that although on friendly terms with their half-brothers they never adopted a Stuart pose . However, this youngest child, Gilbert, who remained in London and became a police inspector, dying in East Finchley in 1902, consistently said that he was born, not in Boulogne, but in Kennington, Surrey (though in 1851 he said Clapham, probably because Portland Place North was off Clapham Road). His baptismal entry has not been found though his Pension application [dated 15 July 1879] amongst the Metropolitan Police records [No 5036 G or Finsbury Division, dated 15 July 1879] says that he was 'born St Mary's Surrey 14 October 1827 [sic] son of Thomas & Ann'.
Beveridge had also obtained information from an unnamed daughter of Gilbert's elder brother, Donald (who had died, she said, in 1883), and she told him about her uncle William, but nowhere does Beveridge give the surname used by these illegitimate children. Perhaps he wished to preserve the family's anonymity. He denied that Donald had died in 1883, although he certainly did, not in the surname Allen or MacGaradh but in that of MacGarrow, a surname which had been used by Donald's daughter Fanny, who died in 1918, since at least 1851. Indeed, searches have revealed that at least three of Thomas Allen's four other illegitimate children had gone to Scotland and taken that surname and that Donald's children usually called themselves Stuart or Stewart MacGarrow.
Thomas's eldest illegitimate child, William, had a child baptised in that name at Forres, Moray, in 1836 and he died a grocer there in 1878, aged 76. In 1871 he said that he was aged 63 and born in Wales. His brother Donald MacGarrow had his first child Fanny in Ireland about 1840-1 and was also at Forres, a hotel keeper, from at least 1843 until his death in 1883, also aged 76 (though he had a child at Tain, Ross & Cromarty, in 1853). In 1851 Donald had said that he was aged 37, a vintner, and born at Appin, Argyll, but by 1881 he was saying that he was aged 60 and born at Moidart, Inverness. William and Donald's sister, Fanny MacGarrow, died at Forres on 17 March 1861 aged 42 and was not apparently in Scotland, in the surname MacGarrow at least, in 1851. The 'Stuart pose' is obvious but little credence can be given to some of the statements. They may indicate that Ann's family were in Argyll or Inverness before they moved eastwards to Forres.
On the three death certificates the father in each case is given as Thomas MacGarrow, Captain RN (or Merchant Service as in the case of Fanny), but the informants add to the confusion when they each say that the mother's maiden name was not Ann Salmon but Ann Burton, as indeed it may have been as there is so little evidence on the point. Further searches in Scotland may perhaps be worthwhile but meanwhile we have little idea when Thomas Allen's liaison with Ann commenced, where he was when their children were born or in what surname they were baptised. If the papers that Berry saw have survived, it is possible that they would throw additional light on the matter.
Admiral John Carter Allen (1725-1800)
Thomas Allen, the supposed son of the Young Pretender, was himself said to have been born on 7 May 1767, a date calculated from his age at death and from 'family records' , and this agrees roughly with his age of 70 in 1841, though he gave the same age in 1851 when he said that he was born at Westminster. No record of his birth or baptism, or of those of his brother Admiral John Allen (said to have been born at Upham in Hampshire on 26 January 1771)  and of their sister Jane or Jean Allen who married Thomas Robinson at Brighton in 1788 , has been found but it has always been assumed that these three children were legitimate. Their father was to all intents and purposes Admiral John Carter Allen, who died in 1800 . He had named the three children in his will without comment as to their status, though he had bequeathed only £100 to Thomas and £100 and a pair of silver candlesticks to Jane, but leaving £2,200 and the residue to John . The disparity has caused comment but Thomas had an assured income from his marriage settlement.
Leo Berry knew little about John Carter Allen's personal life but research has shown that he was twice married, firstly when in his mid-50s, on 20 June 1780 at St James, Westminster, to Mrs Caroline Addington (died 1796-7) , the daughter of Captain Thomas Arnold, R.N., and the widow of William Addington (by whom she had had an only child) , and secondly by special licence on 29 June 1799 at No 2 Devonshire Place, St Marylebone , to Stella Frances Freeman who died in 1821 aged 92 . It is thus clear that the three children above-mentioned were born prior to Admiral John Carter Allen's first marriage and were thus illegitimate.
Looking for further details of these families I was rewarded by finding the will of John Carter Allen's first mother-in-law, Elizabeth, the widow of Thomas Arnold of Lowestoft and Great Yarmouth who had died in 1737 . Elizabeth survived her husband by fifty years and died in 1789. By her will, proved in 1789 , she bequeathed £1,000 to her daughter's husband, 'Admiral John Cator Allen' [sic], and in the twelfth of the sixteen codicils to that will, dated 13 May 1788, she wrote 'I give to Thos John and Jean Allen natural children of Admiral Allen twenty guineas each', thus confirming their illegitimacy. Unfortunately there is no indication as to the name of the children's mother and their baptisms have not been found. In view of Thomas's use in later life of the name Gatehouse it is possible that his mother was a Gatehouse.
Admiral John Carter Allen had himself been born 19 January 1724/5 and baptised at St Dunstan in the West, 31 January 1724/5, the son of Carter Allen.
Carter Allen (1700-1734)
Carter Allen was an attorney in the City of London  who had been born 23 December 1700 and baptised at St Sepulchre in the City on 24 December 1700, the son of John and Ann Allen, of Ellis Court . Carter Allen was buried in the Middle Aisle at St Clement Eastcheap on 31 May 1734  and his estate was administered by his wife, formerly Emma Hay , whom he had married at St Giles, Camberwell, on 20 April 1724 .
The descent from Emma Hay explains Thomas Allen's use of that surname. Contemporaries of Admiral John Carter Allen had recounted at his death in 1800, that the late Lord Hillsborough (who had died in 1793) had said that he had a claim to 'the title of Erroll … as being descended from the old Earl Hay in the male line' , a suggestion that clearly has no substance but which impressed Thomas Allen .
I have not attempted to take the male ancestry further. Emma was not buried at St Clement Eastcheap and it is possible that she married again. Her husband's early death and the circumstances of her son's early liaison and illegitimate children coupled with the illegitimacies in the next generation would undoubtedly have obscured family traditions from later generations, allowing invention to fill the gaps.
 Hugh Trevor Roper, 'Invention of tradition: the highland tradition of Scotland', in Eric Hobsbawm and Terence Ranger, eds., The invention of tradition (University of Cambridge, 1983), reprinted in Journal of the St Andrew's Society of Montreal (September 2006).
 Notes and Queries, vol. 197 (1952) 428-29, 455-57, 470-71, 511-13.
 Notes and Queries, vol. 197 (1952) 471.
 Beveridge (1909) v.
 Notes and Queries, vol. 197 (1952) 455.
 Notes and Queries, vol. 178 (1940) 367-8.
 London Gazette, 16 October 1821, No 17755, page 2065a-b.
 London Gazette, 1 October 1841, No 20023, page 2443.
 Hackney Archives Department, M220; registered 12 July 1848, MDR 1848-5-607.
 Notes and Queries, vol. 197 (1952) 456.
 The costume of the clans (1892) xvii.
 The Genealogical Magazine, i (1897) 23.
 MDR 1834-2-373.
 Morning Post, 22 April 1823, 2c.
 Notes and Queries, vol. 197 (1952) 470.
 1851 Census of Prospect Place, Fulham, HO107/147-44-26, as 'McCasling'.
 He had a brief career as Editor of the Morning Advertiser from 8 September 1876 to January 1877 [Edinburgh Evening News, 9 September 1876, 4; Ipswich Journal, 16 January 1877, 2]. The 1881 Census of 34 Albert Street, St Pancras, shows Napoleon de la Fleuriere, lodger, unmarried, aged 57, author, born Lambeth, Surrey [RG11/176-101-25]. Since this article was first published his baptism has been found at St Margaret, Westminster, 8 September 1823, as Napoleon, son of Henri Timothee & Matilda Boisquet de la Fleuriere, of Nantz in France & Norwich in England, Gent., born 22 July [Entry 1272, Page 159].
[42A] The marriage of "Alexander McCoskery" and "Matilda McFleur" apparently took place at St Mary Abbots, Kensington, on 16 April 1835.
[42B] Further details of Henri Boisquet de la Fleuriere have kindly been provided by Steven Robb from a file at the Archive Nationales, Paris [reference LH/270/39], and given when Madame Boisquet de la Fleuriere solicited the Cross of an Officer of the Legion d'Honneur for her husband in 1854. The 13 documents on file include a certificate of his appointment as Chevalier de la Legion d'Honneur by decree, dated 16 January 1833 (No 74233, Register 29, Folio 124) and a certificate of his pensionable service dated at Paris, 24 July 1854. The latter shows that he entered service, 22 December 1804; was prisoner of war, 5 August 1805; returned to France, 1 November 1807; joined 1st Regiment of Hussars, 7 March 1808; brigadier, 11 June 1809; quarter master, 16 November 1809; sub-lieutenant, 27 January 1810; passed to the 2nd Battalion des Colonies, 25 May 1813; resigned, 3 November 1814; sub-lieutenant, 1st Regiment of Hussars, 5 July 1832; lieutenant, 7 April 1833; captain,31 January 1841; captain adjutant de place commanding Le Fort Royal de Cherbourg, 10 September 1846; retired 24 March 1853; service stopped, 15 August 1853. He had served in campaigns from 22 December 1804 to 1 November 1807, was captive 7 March 1808 to 31 May 1814, was in divers place in France, and in Belgium in 1832, and was wounded, 27 September 1810. A letter from his wife at Auteuil, 22 June 1854, speaks of his service from 2 October 1804 and says he was imprisoned at Boulogne from 1815 and that his exile continued until 1830. She had petitioned from Billancourt, 14 May 1853, saying in French that he was a nephew of Admiral Bruis, had entered service as a midshipman, was taken prisoner at the Battle of Trafalgar, 'Persecuted, imprisoned and exiled by the Restoration in 1815, he did not return to France until 1830'. In August 1853 he was in the 'maison d'arret' at Abbeville. The file ends with the Minister of War, Paris, writing on 31 July 1854 to the Grand Chancellor of the Legion d'Honneur saying that he had been solicited by Madame Boisquet in favour of her husband, but the outcome (and the identity of the wife who signs 'M. B. De la Fleuriere' in 1853) are not stated. A record in the British National Archives [ADM 103/346 folio 116] shows that midshipman No 2885, Thimatte Boisquet, on La Faune, National Brig, was taken in the Bay of Biscay, by the Camilla on 15 August and received into custody at Portsmouth, and discharged on parole to the Thurne, 24 August 1805. A short pedigree of 'Ces messieurs de Nantes' on gw.geneanet.org shows Henry Thimotee Boisquet de la Fleuriere as born 1788, the third child of Jacques Louis de Boisquet de la Fleuriere (1744-1813) by his wife Marie Marguerite Julie Richard du Plessis (1760-1817; married 1781).
 1841 Census of Rectory Place, Fulham, HO107/689-14-37v.
 1861 Census of 1 Home Cottages, Fulham, RG9/27-11-18.
 Death registered Kensington, March Quarter 1870, aged 70.
 1881 Census of Middlesex Lunatic Asylum, Norwood, RG11/1336-82-32.
 Death registered St George Hanover Square, aged 29; Notes and Queries, Fifth Series viii (1877) 92. Since the publication of this article I have been indebted to Stephen Robb for a copy of the death certificate of Charles Ferdinand Stuart, Count de Lancastro et d'Albanie. He died 28 September 1873, at 98 Harley Street, aged 29, of inflammation of the lungs, pulmonary collapse, the informant being Charles Edward Hatherly, in attendance, of 115 Belgrave Road, Pimlico. The Count was at balls or receptions in London in newspaper reports on 21 June 1869, 8 June 1870 and 28 June 1871. 98 Harley Street was in 1871 the home of Countess Rachel d'Avigdor (died 1896), a daughter of the 1st Baron Goldsmid and wife of Count Soloman Henry d'Avigdor.
 1851 Census of Prospect Place, Fulham, HO107/147-44-26.
 1851 Census of 22 Henry Street, Pentonville, HO107/1518-152-33.
 Notes and Queries, vol. 197 (1952) 456.
 Notes and Queries, vol. 197 (1952) 470-1.
 Notes and Queries, vol. 197 (1952) 455-6.
 Notes and Queries, vol. 199 (1954) 209.
 He is generally stated to have died at his house in Devonshire Place, London, on 2 October 1800 (The Star for 15 October and Gentleman's Magazine, 1800 ii 1010), but the first accounts of his death (in the Courier and Evening Gazette and Morning Post for 9 October and the Oracle and Daily Advertiser for 10 October) say that he died at Bath.
 His will dated 11 February 1800 (with codicils 1 March 1800 and 25 March 1800) proved 16 October 1800 (PCC folio 697); text printed in Notes and Queries vol. 203 (1958) 310-11; IR26/44 No 5, Under £5,000.
 His will dated 22 August 1777 proved PCC 8 June 1779, PROB11/1053 folio 230.
 Marriage Registers of St Marylebone, 29 June 1799, Page 76, Entry 228.
 She was buried at Abbots Langley, Hertfordshire, 12 November 1821, aged 92; her will dated 10 June 1806 with codicils 10 April 1812 and 17 August 1819 proved PCC 21 November 1821, PROB11/1649 folio 583.
 Burial Registers of St Clement Eastcheap, City of London, 31 May 1734; Harleian Society, 68 (1938) 15.
 His administration granted PCC, 13 June 1734, PROB6/110 folio 99r.
 Letter of William Scott in Gentleman's Magazine, 1800 ii 1021.
(c) Anthony J. Camp, June 2016. First published (with summary pedigree) in Genealogists' Magazine, Volume 31, Number 8, December 2014, pages 298-306; additions made, 6 October 2017 and 19 February 2020.
Below is a summary of the main details now known about the brothers, placed here 29 March 2020, and as drafted for Wikipedia:
The Sobieski Stuarts
In the 1820s two English brothers, John Carter Allen (1795-1872) and Charles Manning Allen (1802-1880) adopted the names John Sobieski Stuart and Charles Edward Stuart, moved to Scotland, became Roman Catholics, and about 1839 began to claim that their father, Thomas Allen (1767-1852), a former Lieutenant in the British Navy, had been born in Italy the only legitimate child of Prince Charles Edward Stuart and his wife Princess Louise of Stolberg-Gedern. They claimed that Thomas had, for fear of kidnapping or assassination, been brought secretly to England on a ship captained by their grandfather, Admiral John Carter Allen (1725-1800), and adopted by him. Thomas thus had, they claimed, a direct claim to the throne and 'They succeeded in fabricating around them an aura of bogus royalty which attracted the allegiance of a few romantic Jacobites in Victorian times' [James Lees-Milne, The last Stuarts (1984) page 230]. Herbert Vaughan called their story 'an impudent fabrication' and 'an unblushing fraud' [Herbert M. Vaughan, The last of the royal Stuarts: Henry Stuart, Cardinal Duke of York (1906) page 280] but it was as Sir Charles Petrie wrote 'proof of the hold which the House of Stuart has never ceased to exercise upon popular imagination in the British Isles, so that ... if a man were to declare himself the heir to the Yorkist or Tudor dynasty, he would attract but little attention, yet if he claim to be a Stuart he will find hundreds ready to believe him' [Sir Charles Petrie, The Jacobite movement: the last phase: 1716-1807 (London, 1950) 187].
The brothers' two publications, Vestiarium Scoticum (Edinburgh, 1842) and Costume of the Clans (Edinburgh, 1843), described by the historian HughTrevor-Roper as 'shot through with pure fantasy and bare faced forgery' ['Invention of tradition; the Highland tradition of Scotland' in Eric Hobsbawm and Terrence Ranger, eds., The invention of tradition (University of Cambridge, 1983)], have been sources widely used by the tartan industry in Scotland.
The brothers' grandfather, John Carter Allen (1725-1800), an admiral in the British navy, had three children: the above-named Lieutenant Thomas Allen (1767-1852), Jane or Jean Allen (c.1768-1829) who married Thomas Robinson, a widower, at Brighton in 1788, and Admiral John Allen (1771-1853). The three were named in John Carter Allen's will, though he bequeathed only £100 to Thomas and £100 and a pair of silver candesticks to Jane, leaving £2,200 and the residue to John. This disparity caused comment and some have speculated that Thomas was illegitimate, but an income had been guaranteed to him under his marriage settlement in 1792.
However, additional research in 2014 showed that John Carter Allen did not marry until 1780 and that his three children were all illegitimate and born in a period in which he held no commission [John Charnock, Biographia Navalis, vol. 6 (1798) 288]. The three were named 'natural children of John Cator Allen' in the twelfth of sixteen codicils to the will of Elizabeth Arnold, his first wife's mother, dated in 1788 and proved in 1789. She left them twenty guineas each and £1,000 to their father. The identity of their mother(s) has not been found. There was much tension in the family later and at one time the youngest son, John, was heard to say of Thomas, 'he is no brother of mine' [Beveridge (1909) 102].
John Carter Allen himself had been baptised at St Dunstan in the West in 1724/5, the son of Carter Allen (1700-1734), an attorney in the parish of St Clement Eastcheap in the City of London, who had married Emma Hay or Hays at St Giles, Camberwell, in 1724. These details also were not known until 2014. Contemporaries of John Carter Allen had said at his death in 1800 that the late Lord Hillsborough (who died in 1793 and for whom John Carter Allen's younger brother William Allen (1729-1811) had worked as an office clerk) had said that 'he had a claim to the title of Erroll ... as being descended from the old Earl Hay in the male line' [Letter of William Scott in Gentleman's Magazine, 1800, vol. i, page 1021], a worthless statement as the peerage had become extinct in the male line in 1717 [The Complete Peerage, vol. v (1926) pages 99-100], but believed by Thomas who added Hay to his name.
However, the uncertainty of their descent and the romantic nature of the various claims surrounding them greatly influenced the two brothers. They also added Hay to their names and in 1822 the eldest son, as John Hay Allan, published a Genealogical table of the Hays, from William de Haya, cupbearer to Malcolm IV, 1170, down to 1840, with all the branches (Edinburgh, 1840), though his descent is not shown in the book and the parentage of Emma Hay or Hays has not been found.
Although frequently referred to as Captain Allen, Thomas Allen never attained that rank. He retired from the Navy as a Lieutenant in 1798 and his subsequent history and movements and the extent to which he approved of his sons' later claims, are all far from clear. He had married Catherine Matilda Manning, a daughter of the Rev. Owen Manning the historian of Surrey, at Godalming in 1792. They had three children: (1) John Carter Allen, born at Oystermouth, Glamorgan, 4 August 1795 and baptised there, 5 October 1795; (2) Matilda Allen, born at Oystermouth, Glamorgan, 18 October 1799 and baptised there, 12 January 1800; and (3) Charles Manning Allen, born at Rotherfield Grays, Oxfordshire, 4 July 1802 and baptised there, 3 August 1802. Under their marriage settlement the couple and their future children had a life interest and income from properties in Mare Street and Well Street, Hackney.
However, sometime about 1807 Thomas Allen formed a connection with a much younger woman, Ann, who was born in Hackney about 1790, and by whom he had four or perhaps five illegitimate children between 1808 and 1829. Her surname is usually given as Salmon (as she had a niece of that name living with her in 1851) but the death certificates of several of her children show it as Burton. The first child, William (died 1878), who used the surname MacGarrow, claimed to have been born in Glamorganshire or Wales but his baptism and the exact whereabouts of Thomas and Ann at this time have not been determined. It is said that from 1816 to 1829 Thomas was based at Boulogne, 'a safe refuge for English debtors' [Notes and Queries, vol. 197 (1952) 456]. He certainly had increasing financial problems and in February 1817 he unsuccessfully appealed to the former Lord Chancellor, Lord Erskine, for help with the possible sale of some of the property held in trust under his marriage settlement. A last minute attempt to come to an arrangement about it failed and on 17 January 1818, as the result of an action in the Court of Kings Bench against Thomas and his son John (in a plea of debt for £300 and damages by James Barstow), Thomas was imprisoned for debt in the Fleet Prison. He was released by order of the Court for Relief of Insolvent Debtors on 20 December 1819 but continued to live in fear of his creditors.
His reticence and desired anonymity was probably due to his illegitimacy and his relationship with Anne, but it was complicated by the later statements of his two legitimate sons on whom he looked with some displeasure. He had little in common with them and they in turn looked down on Anne as 'of much lower rank in life' than their mother [Beveridge (1909) 20-21, 102-3]. Thomas and Anne apparently had their last child, Gilbert Hay Allen (1829-1902), in south London in 1829 and in 1839 Thomas was in hiding at 10 Portland Place North, Clapham Road, Lambeth, as 'Mr Salmond' [Beveridge (1909) 102]. In the 1841 census he was entered at that address as 'Thomas MacGaradh', aged 70, and born in Scotland. He ostensibly registered the death of his wife Catherine Matilda at Portland Place North, on 14 February 1841, again calling himself Thomas MacGaradh, but describing her as 'Matilda Manning, widow'. When the census was taken a few months later Anne was living with him at this address as Anne MacGaradh. MacGaradh was, his sons said, a war-cry of the Hay family but it was entirely their creation and it seems likely that they or Anne were responsible for their father's statements. The death of Catherine Matilda in 1841 did, however, eventually allow the purchase by Charles of the family's life interest in the trust properties from his father's bankruptcy assignees.
It is said that Thomas 'spent the last seven years of his life in bed' [Beveridge (1909) 89, 102], confined to his room at 22 Henry Street, Pentonville. He was there as 'John Salmon' when the Census was taken in 1851 and he died at that address as Thomas Hay Allen on 14 February 1852. He was buried in that name at St Giles in the Fields, Middlesex, on 23 February 1852, aged 84. His son, Charles, in order to distance himself from him, wrote in 1877 that his father was called James and had died in 1839. Some believed that he was buried at Old St Pancras, Middlesex (as stated in the introduction to the 1892 edition of his sons' The costume of the clans, xvii, and repeated in the Dictionary of National Biography) and Beveridge added 'but the stone said to have been placed over his grave cannot now be found' [Beveridge (1909) 89-90].
No detail of the educations of Thomas's two sons has been found though they claimed that the secret of their royal descent had been revealed to them about 1811, that they had fought for Napoleon at Dresden (in August 1813), Leipzig (October 1813) and Waterloo (June 1815) and had learned Gaelic in London. The youngest, Charles Manning Allen, who we now know was not born until 1802, married at St George, Hanover Square, on 9 October 1822, Anna Gardiner, who had an income from property in Ireland and was the widow of Major Charles Gardiner (1780-1818), the childless only son of General William Gardiner (1748-1806; DNB) former British Minister in Brussels and Warsaw and younger brother of Luke Gardiner, 1st Viscount Mountjoy (1745-1798). The marriage was publicised as that of 'Charles Stuart Hay Allen'. However, the couple moved to Scotland after marriage and their first child, Anna Marie Stuart, born 27 July 1823, was baptised at Edinburgh and there recorded in the surname Hay on 20 October 1823.
Thomas's eldest son, John Carter Allen, calling himself John Hay Allan, had apparently already been in Scotland for some time and in 1822 he published a volume of poems, Bridal of Caolchairn, and other poems (London, 1822) dedicated to the Duke of Argyll, and revealing a fair knowledge of that county but including several allusions to his claimed descent from the Hays of Errol. From 1826 to 1829, John joined his brother Charles at Windy Hill (now Milton Brodie), Alves, Morayshire, under the patronage of the Earl of Moray [Beveridge (1909) 25]. The brothers were at Logie House, Edinkillie, Morayshire, from 1829 to 1838 [Beveridge (1909) 25], when John used the name Stuart Allan. As John Sobieski Stuart he and his brother, calling themselves 'grandsons to the Pretender', had visited Ireland in May 1836 [The Times, 9 May 1836, quoting the Glasgow Chronicle (Beveridge (1909) 37-38)]. Lord Lovat then built 'an antique shooting lodge' for them on Eilean Aigas, an islet in the river Beauly, near Eskadale, Inverness, and there, always wearing the Stuart tartan, they held court from 1838 to 1845, attending the catholic church at Eskadale and being known as 'the Princes' [Beveridge (1909) 93]. The house is described as 'a very elegant mansion of the Elizabethan style' in the New Statistical Account of Scotland (1842) [Beveridge (1909) 93]. On 18 October 1845, John married at St Martin-in-the-Fields, Westminster, Georgina, eldest surviving daughter of Edward Kendall, J.P., of Austrey, Warwickshire [Burke's Landed Gentry (1858) page 643]. She had, he told Dr Robert Chambers, 'only ten thousand pounds, unless she survives her two sisters, who equally share with her' [Beveridge (1909) 100], but the couple then moved to live in London [Beveridge (1909) 27]. In his letter to Chambers just prior to the marriage John asked for a loan of £100 until his wife's dividends were paid but when his father-in-law eventually died in March 1872 the total estate was sworn at 'Under £1,500' and later as 'Under £2,000' [Principal Probate Registry, 10 June 1872].
Thomas Allen's daughter Matilda had married Henry Timothy Boisquet de la Fleuriere, at St Alphege, Greenwich, in 1818, and their son, Napoleon de la Fleuriere (1823-1881), was baptised at St Margaret, Westminster, in 1823. According to Matilda, her husband had been in the French service from 1804 to 1814 and from 1832 to 1853, but had been taken prisoner at Trafalgar and did not return to France until 1830. In 1835 using the name Matilda McFleur she then married at St Mary Abbots, Kensington, one Alexander McCaskery (died 1870), a police serjeant in Fulham, by whom she had at least three children. This seems not to have stopped her from soliciting the Cross of an Officer of the Legion d'Honneur for Henry Timothy in 1854. Her date of death has not been found.
In Scotland the brothers 'conducted themselves as members of a reigning dynasty who wished to preserve their incognito' [Sir Charles Petrie, The Jacobite Movement: the last phase: 1716-1807 (London, 1950) 191] and their claims 'were accorded a level of credence' (as the Dictionary of National Biography said at the end of the century) by 'men of rank and intelligence, such as the tenth Earl of Moray (1771-1848), the fourteenth Lord Lovat (1802-1875), the late Marquis of Bute (1793-1848), Sir Thomas Dick-Lauder, Bt (1784-1848), and Dr Robert Chambers (1802-1871)'. However, the delusional John Sobieski Stuart, in spite of his expressed desire to withdraw from the public eye, went so far as to claim, in a letter to Chambers, that he and his brother had 'a body of supporters ready to push their claims to the uttermost' [Sir Charles Petrie, The Jacobite Movement: the last phase: 1716-1807 (London, 1950) 191-2].
In June 1829 the elder brother had shown a manuscript, containing tartan patterns and dated in 1721, to Sir Thomas Dick-Lauder who was much impressed by it, but Sir Walter Scott warned Dick-Lauder that the brothers 'are men of warm imaginations ... of much accomplishment but little probity - that is, in antiquarian matters' [Beveridge (1909) 59]. Sir Walter Scott, who died in 1832, had rejected the entire notion of clan tartans, saying that the 'idea of distinguishing the clans by their tartans is but a fashion of modern date'. On behalf of the Society of Scottish Antiquaries he was shown a transcript of part of the brothers' manuscript but from its language alone 'indignantly declared his conviction that the MS itself must be an absolute fabrication' [Quarterly Review, vol. 81, June-September 1847, page 64]. Scott remembered seeing one of the brothers wearing the badge of High Constable of Scotland (as the Earls of Errol were), 'which he could have no more right to wear than the Crown' [Beveridge (1909) 24]. Dick-Lauder was himself an author of historical romances and had put up a monument to the Lauder family in Edinburgh showing a quite spurious descent, but one 'as he wished it to be' [Complete Baronetage (vol. 4, 1904) page 362, note a].
However, calling himself John Sobieski Stuart, the elder brother then produced the lavish Vestiarium Scoticum (Edinburgh, 1842), costing ten guineas, which purported to be a reproduction, with colour illustrations, of a better version of the 1721 manuscript, this one being dated to 1571. This John claimed had passed through the hands of Prince Charles Edward Stuart to his father Thomas, though his father's letter on the subject, addressed to him as Ian and signed 'J. T. Stuart Hay' in 1829 [Beveridge (1909) 60], seems likely to be bogus.
Considerable interest in clans and tartans continued, and the following year, under the name John Sobieski Stolberg Stuart, John and his brother Charles published The costume of the clans: with observations upon the literature, arts, manufactures and commerce of the Highland and Western Isles during the middle ages; and the influence of the sixteenth, seventeenth and eighteenth centuries upon their present condition (Edinburgh, 1843) which, as noted above, received intense criticism.
Using the names John Sobieski Stuart and Charles Edward Stuart the brothers followed this with their Tales of the Century, or sketches of the romances of history between 1745 and 1845 (Edinburgh, 1847) in which they provided three scenes of the birth, youth and marriage of a man known by the Gaelic name of Iolair dhearg or the Red Eagle, said to have been recounted by an aged Jacobite in exile, Dr Beaton. After being called to attend the birth of a son to a young woman in Tuscany in 1773, where portraits of the Old and Young Pretenders were prominent, Beaton claimed to have been sworn to secrecy, but later to have seen a baby taken on board a British warship, HMS Albina, under Commodore O'Haloran. In the second tale, some years later, the grown child arrived in the Western Highlands of Scotland where, although called O'Haloran and thought to be the son of the former captain, he is known as The Red Eagle and addressed as a prince. In the third tale, which takes place in the Peak District of Derbyshire, a traveller meets The Red Eagle who, after various adventures, marries at Berwick, Catharine Bruce, the daughter of a Derbyshire local landowner.
The stories, taken together, were designed in a roundabout way to suggest that the brothers' supposed grandfather was in reality Commodore O'Haloran, and that the child, their father (known as Thomas Allen), was in reality the child of Prince Charles Edward Stuart and Louise of Stolberg, and thus de jure monarch of England. Although the tales were 'copiously augmented with historical notes' [Hugh Douglas, Bonnie Prince Charlie in love (1995) 218], in truth Admiral John Carter Allen did not command any ship in 1773, being on half-pay from 1771 to 1775.
A strong attack on both the Vestiarium Scoticum and their Tales of the Century then followed and the brothers ancestral claims, which had received little acceptance in England, and the Vestiarium were completely discredited in a devastating anonymous article 'The heirs of the Stuarts', believed to be by George Skene (1807-1875), Professor of Law at Glasgow University, which appeared in the Quarterly Review, vol. 81 (June-September 1847) 57-85. He concluded about the Vestiarium that 'this pretended MS of the sixteenth century is an absolute fabrication, and of no authority whatever' and about the Tales that Prince Charles Edward Stuart 'could have had no possible reason for concealing the birth of an heir'; any idea that he had 'left a legitimate male progeny' was 'the silliest of dreams'.
In 1848 John attempted A reply to the Quarterly Review upon the Vestiarium Scoticum (Edinburgh, 1848) and the two brothers then produced Lays of the deer forest: with sketches of olden and modern deer-hunting (2 vols. Edinburgh, 1848), but three of their benefactors, the Earl of Moray, the Marquis of Bute and Thomas Dick-Lauder, died that year and the brothers were now so discredited that Charles took his wife to Prague where their son was in the Austrian army [Beveridge (1909) 101; DNB]) and John followed soon after [Beveridge (1909) 27]. John's wife died at Presburg in 1862 and the brothers did not return to England until 1868. In London they then occupied themselves with research, being well-known figures in the British Museum, wearing Highland dress or military tunics and using pens embellished with gold coronets.
John, who called himself 'The Chevalier John Sobieski Stewart', in 1871 described himself as Count d'Albanie, Colonel of Hussars, and said that he was born at Versailles, France. He died without issue at 52 Stanley Street, St George Hanover Square, 13 February 1872, aged 74, and was buried at Eskadale. His widow died at Bath in 1888.
His brother Charles then assumed the title of Count of Albany and was active in Catholic circles in London but died from the same address (by then called 52 Alderney Street) on a trip to France on the Steamer Rainbow near Bordeaux, 24 December 1880, and was buried at Eskadale. His son Charles Edward Stuart Allen, the last self-styled Count of Albany, died in Jersey in 1882. He had married Lady Alice Hay (1835-1881), a daughter of the 18th Earl of Erroll, but they had no issue.
Hugh Beveridge, The Sobieski Stuarts: their claim to be descended from Prince Charlie (Inverness, 1909). The book had previously been published as a series of articles in The Inverness Courier, commencing in 1907. He concluded (page v) that 'nothing has been found of a sufficiently definite nature to support those claims. At the same time there is not sufficient evidence to damn them'.
C.L. Berry, 'An annotated pedigree of the Allen family and the so-called Sobieski-Stuarts', in Notes and Queries, vol. 197 (1952) 418-29, 455-57, 470-71, 511-13.
Sir Charles Petrie, The Jacobite movement: the last phase:1716-1807 (London, 1950).
James Lees-Milne, The last Stuarts: British royalty in exile (New York, 1984).
Anthony Camp, 'New Light on the Sobieski Stuarts', in Genealogists' Magazine, as above.